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Главная страница » Фразовые глаголы и сокращенные формы
Фразовые глаголы и сокращенные формы


Фразовые глаголы часто употребляют со следующими словами: on, off, in, out, up, down, away, back, over, about, round, forward, through, along. И часто смысл глагола меняется. Например:

Look! - Посмотри!
Look out! - Будь осторожен!

Вот некоторые из них:

Пример (подчеркнут)
break down stop functioning That old Jeep had a tendency to break down.
catch on become popular Popular songs seem to catch on in California first.
come back return to a place We will never come back to this horrible place.
come in enter They tried to come in through the back door, but it was locked.
come to regain consciousness He was hit on the head very hard, but after several minutes, he started to come to again.
come over to visit The children promised to come over, but they never do.
drop by visit without appointment We used to just drop by, but they were never home, so we stopped doing that.
eat out dine in a restaurant When we visited Paris, we loved eating out in the sidewalk cafes.
get by survive Uncle Heine didn't have much money, but he always seemed to get by without borrowing money from relatives.
get up arise Grandmother tried to get up, but the couch was too low, and she couldn't make it on her own.
go back return to a place It's hard to imagine that we will ever go back to Lithuania.
go on continue He would finish one Dickens novel and then just go on to the next.
grow up get older Charles grew up to be a lot like his father.
keep away remain at a distance The judge warned the stalker to keep away from his victim's home.
keep on (+gerund) continue with the same He tried to keep on singing long after his voice was ruined.
pass out lose consciousness, faint He had drunk too much; he passed out on the sidewalk outside the bar.
show off demonstrate haughtily Whenever he sat down at the piano, we knew he was going to show off.
show up arrive Day after day, Efrain showed up for class twenty minutes late.
wake up arouse from sleep I woke up when the rooster (ам. петух) crowed.


1. В разговорном английском языке обычно используются сокращенные формы вспомогательных глаголов. Их также часто используют и в неформальной письменной речи. При использовании сокращенной формы вместо пропущенных букв ставится апостроф ('):

'm = am I'm your boss.
's = is She's my girlfriend.
's = has He's just a freak.
're =are You're all right.
've = have We've lost it!
'll = will или shall I'll be back.
'd = would или had They'd like to meet you.

2. Сокращенные формы глаголов с частицей not:

do not = don't;
does not = doesn’t;
did not = didn't;
have not = haven't;
has not = hasn't;
had not = hadn't;
cannot = can’t;
could not = couldn't;
will not = won’t;
shall not = shan’t;
would not = wouln't;
should not = shouldn't;
must not = mustn't;
need not = needn't;
might not = mightn't (редко);
dare not = daren't (редко);
is not = isn't;
are not = aren’t [a:nt];
was not = wasn't;
were not = weren't;
ain't = is not, are not (редко);

3. Некоторые из этих сокращенных форм используются после вопросительных слов:

who's = who is;
who'll = who will (или who shall);
who'd = who would, who had;
what's = what is, what has;
what'll = what will;
how's = how is, how has;
where's = where is, where has;
when's = when is;
here's = here is;
that's = that is;
that'll = that will;
there's = there is, there has;
there'll = there will.

Иногда краткие формы (особенно 's) используются после существительного:

John's coming. = John is coming.
Her sister's just left. = Her sister has just left.

Сокращенные формы не используются, если соответствующий глагол стоит в конце предложения:

Yes, you are. (Нельзя сказать Yes, you're.)
Do you remember how old he is? (Нельзя сказать Do you remember how old he's.)

Основы английской грамматики

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