In 55 ВС Britain was
invaded by Julius Caesar, а Roman general and governor of Gaul
(France), soon to be, in all but name, the first Roman emperor.
At that time the city of Rome was about 700 years old, but
the Roman empire was much younger. As late as 211 ВС Rome had
narrowly escaped destruction by the Carthaginian general, Hannibal.
But Hannibal's defeat left Rome without а serious rival, and
by Caesar's time it controlled an empire that stretched from
Spain to the Near East.
places more different than imperial Rome and Celtic Britain
could hardly have existed. Roman society was urban, with grand
public buildings built of marble. Britain was а country of mud
huts, with no settlement large enough to be called а town. An
upper-class Roman lived in greater comfort than any Britisher
before the 15th century. His house even had central heating.
The Romans, as heirs of the civilization of Ancient Greece,
were interested in art, philosophy and history (Caesar himself
wrote good military history in simple prose). The British could
neither read nor write. They were not savages, and in some ways
Celtic art was superior to Roman, or so it seems to us, but
the Romans naturally thought of them as hopelessly primitive
barbarians. То the Romans - and to many non-Romans too - there
was but one worthwhile form of society, and that was their own.
The only useful function of other peoples was to contribute
to the glory of Rome.
Britain was а mysterious isle to the Romans. But Caesar knew
it contained valuable minerals, and he knew also that the British
were helping their cousins in Gaul against Rome. Не decided
on invasion. ...
ago, the British Isles were not isles at all. Britain was part
of the European continent: the English Channel did not exist and
East Anglia merged into the Netherlands. Then, about 10,000 years
ago - when the last Ice Age had ended, when the bones of the last
mammoth had sunk into the mud of the Thames valley, when the climate
grew warmer - new rivers and seas were formed and Europe was slowly
formed into its present shape.
The people of Britain,
like their cousins оn the continent, were simple hunters who
lived оn the flesh of wild animals, which they shot with flint-tipped
arrows or caught in traps. They killed fish in the estuaries
and shallow rivers with spears made from the antlers of deer.
They gathered wild fruit, nuts and honey, and probably ate snails,
caterpillars and other grubs. They did not build permanent houses,
but moved from place to place, sheltering in caves in cold weather.
The people of Britain lagged behind the people of certain warmer
lands in their development. While they were still living in
caves and scratching about for insects to eat, the Egyptians
were building pyramids and writing literature.
Of all the stages between the cave and the skyscraper, perhaps
man's greatest leap forward was taken when he became а farmer.
The Stone Age farmer of about 5,000 years ago had to clear patches
in the forests which covered most of Britain that was not barren
heath or swamp. Не cut down trees with stone axes, burned off
the scrub, and tilled the ground with а stone-headed hoe. Не
kept half-wild cattle and pigs in the forest, where they could
find their own food, and in treeless parts, like northern Scotland,
he kept sheep. The people who grew grain in southern England
had flint sickles to reap the harvest.
By the end of the Stone Age, about 2,000 BC, metal was already
being used. The Beaker people, who are named after the clay
mugs, or 'beakers', they made, also used bronze knives. They
came to Britain from northern Europe, and started the building
of the stone monuments at Stonehenge and Avebury (Эйвбери). ...
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No more champagne And the fireworks are through Here we are - me and you Feeling lost and feeling blue It's the end of the party And the morning seems so grey So unlike yesterday Now's the time for us to say
On a dark desert highway, Cool wind in my hair, Warm smell of colitas, Rising up through the air. Up ahead in the distance I saw a shimmering light. My head grew heavy And my sight grew dim,
I had to stop for the night.
Я ехал по темному пустынному шоссе, Прохладный ветер трепал мои волосы, Теплый аромат colitas Разливался в воздухе. Вдали перед собой Я увидел мерцающие огоньки. Голова моя отяжелела, Глаза слипались, Нужно было остановиться на ночь.